Post New Order, Indonesia has changed its governance. It was signed along with the enactment of the two most important regulations related to regional autonomy and decentralization, which are Law No. 22/1999 and Law No. 25/1999. By implementing those regulations, Indonesia has no longer considered as a centralistic state. The laws regulate how to transfer power from the central government to the local level (provincial and district government) in order to maintain and to empower each local resource.
After more than one decade of the implementation, the local autonomy policy has not been maximized. The most rampant and highly visible progresses that surface are only related to regional growth, such as how to split one district or province to be smaller. However, it is not followed by any particular and specific policy and political will in order to enhance the people’s welfare in the region. Various studies have depicted that this new era of regional autonomy has not shown significant changes in aiming to manage autonomous local/regional wealth for people’s welfare, besides opening and giving a way for local ruling elites to compete in power control. It is reflected in data provided by the Ministry of Internal Affair that states by 2012, only 22% of the districts/provincesgrowth generated by the local/regional government was categorized as successful, while the rest of them, the 78%, failed to reach the main goals (Kemendagri, 18/6/2012; Tempo, 27/12/2013; Media Indonesia, 6/5/2014 in Budiman, 2016). The failure of the government in order to achieve an increase of people’s welfare causes crisis to the national citizens. Therefore, despite depending their livelihoods to the government, people prefer to entrust their relatives or the entire community where they belong to to solve their social and economic problems (Budiman, 2016).
Furthermore, the current phenomenon of development policy is more engaged to huge and massive capital investment that comes from national regulation and foreign investment. There are no more local and regional autonomy power in the middle of the implementation of the two regional/local autonomy laws that are mentioned above. The current leader of Indonesia, Jokowi-JK, also emphasizes the importance of a huge and massive pattern in economic development using local/regional resources and foreign investment in order to accelerate the increase of economic growth level for the year 2025.
In accordance to the brief explanation above, it is very interesting to discuss the relationship between citizenship and economic development policy in autonomy era. How the implication in the context of the people’s welfare improves and how the problem could possibly occur, especially how to fulfill the people’s basic rights become the important issues that have been less discussed. This panel will discuss several facts that have emerged and hopes that all participants in this panel will reveal some local problems led to the critical studies on decentralization concept in Indonesia and its relation with a specific and particular pattern of citizenship in the local/district level.
- Syarifah Ratnawati (ARC & Yayasan Interseksi)
- Riefky Bagas Prastowo
- Revival and Conflict of Interest among Sultan Buton (Syarifah Ratnawati)
- Late Coming Colonialism: The Dominance of Pidie Merchants and the Exclusion of Chinese Merchants in Sigli and Beureuneun Markets [Sudiarto]
- Citizenship and Management of Eastern Coastal City of Sumatra: A Story of Bagansiapiapi [Subhi Azhari]
- The Involution of Donggala: The Splitting Area and A Setback of the Oldest Regency in Central Sulawesi [Riefky Bagas Prastowo]
- Inheritance the Great Mail Pos Road in Banten: Relations between Cities on the Western Tip of Java and Social Hierarchy of Road Users [Radjimo Sastro Wijono]
- Power Community for Government Empowerment: Concept and Practice [Manshur Zikri]
- Name of Development for People Welfare: A Case Study of Jatigede Dam Development in Sumedang District, West Java [Lina Marina, Rahmi Indriyani dan Hilma Safitri]
- Grouping of Residental Areas Based on Ethnic and Religion in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra [Kristina Viri]
- Man Industry and Development: Coconut Estates Industry in North Minahasa [Hilma Safitri]
- “Kota Santri” Dillema: The Politics of Citizenship in Post-Soeharto Tasikmalaya [Amin Mudzakkir]